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Integrated project team

At a glance

5.1 Induction/training/continuous improvement

5.2 Working together

5.3 Managing expectations/client care

5.4 Health, safety and welfare

5.5 Communications

5.6 Delegation and empowerment

5.7 No blame and risk

5.8 Programme

5.9 Quality management

5.10 Payments

5.11 Managing change

5.12 Managing the budget

 

Workbook 5

IPT0IPT1IPT2IPT3IPT4IPT5IPT6IPT7

Step

Process

Culture and activities

Tools and techniques

5.0 IPT Implementation Making it happen. Guidance about supply chain management is available from the Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS) at http://www.cips.org/en-GB/book-shop/Section 4.5 (Pages 14 and 15) of the Integrated Project Insurance (IPI) model guide explains how to go about the delivery activity under the IPI model of procurement
5.1 Induction/training/continuous improvement Understanding the principles and values – The purpose of an IPT is to bring together diverse groups of people and combine them into a seamless team for the pursuit of common goals. Everyone involved therefore has to gain a thorough understanding of this collaborative culture, which is likely to be fundamentally different from any previous way of working. Training in this area is required to give individuals and teams practical opportunities to acquire the skills and develop the behaviours that will translate the IPT concept into a successful and enjoyable reality.
All aspects of the project must be discussed with the various disciplines within the team, in order to avoid operational pitfalls. For example, having a lead time that is shorter than the time in which supplies can be procured will lead to dissatisfaction, recriminations and, possibly, a missed project date. Being realistic will ensure that the various disciplines can work within the time-scales, budgets and standards being set.
Training in applying these techniques in construction environments is available from The Collaborative Working Centre or from Integrated Project Initiatives (info@ipinitiatives.com) in respect of integrated collaborative working in general and the integrated project insurance (IPI) model in particular.
    Consistent induction
All projects should commence with a start process, which introduces team members to the concepts and focuses the team in determining a common set of goals and objectives.
 
    Training
Workshops accelerate the team’s development. Values can be brought to life through practical projects and reviews, giving an opportunity to experience collaborative working in action. They enable participants to:

  • create new approaches
  • see things differently
  • become energised to achieve extraordinary results
  • discover unrealised potential.

Cross-company training events should be run throughout the project. Training should be targeted to have direct relevance to specific benefits and/or problem areas and should include the opportunity to explore relevant issues in greater depth, to exchange ideas and best practice across a broad range of companies and industries. In addition it should be realised that some people require personal mentoring or coaching to help them develop.

 
    Changes in team dynamics
Remember that team dynamics will change as the make-up of the team changes. There must be sufficient flexibility and adaptability in the ways the project is managed to recognise that when someone new joins, or a new activity begins, it may have an effect on the way the team is organised and on the dynamics that are necessary. Processes or procedures may have to be changed in order to accommodate the shift in dynamics.
 
    Selecting additional members
The earliest stage of implementation is also the time to consider where additional skills and capabilities, not viewed as sufficiently significant to assemble earlier, are now required. For example, those who will be responsible for producing the operation and maintenance guides should be involved in order to define the way information and documentation is going to be collated and collected. This will ultimately lead to a much better way of delivering the final documents. The same point can be applied to quality assurance. It is important to begin the implementation process by deciding how quality is going to be measured and how it will be reported. These decisions will change the way in which aspects of the project are undertaken, monitored and recorded. Ensure that everyone is aware of the decision-making structure and how they engage in the process to resolve queries.
 
    Continuous improvement
Lean thinking and challenging traditional processes Everyone needs to understand that efficiency and effectiveness are their responsibility. All parties need to question and challenge methods and approaches that are wasteful and cause confusion, duplication and misunderstanding. No one should perpetuate inefficient/outmoded methods at the expense of genuine opportunities to improve.
  • The Lean Construction Institute is a non-profit organisation founded in 1997. The Institute operates as a catalyst to transform the industry through lean project delivery using an operating system centred on a common language, fundamental principles, and basic practices.
  • Report C696 Build lean. Transforming construction using lean thinking (2011), CIRIA, provides guidance about lean construction management.
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5.2 Working together
This is the actual implementation of the project by:

  • the teams, including the cluster leaders
  • the cluster members
  • the supply chains feeding each Cluster.
Focusing on goals and objectives – Care must be taken to focus on the goals and objectives throughout the implementation process. Everyone is involved in the project for the same reason: to meet the project objectives.If that is achieved, everyone’s objectives are met, for all wish to do their job right first time, meeting an appropriate standard of quality and for a fair price.The goals and objectives will only be met if the members of the team work together in a mature environment for the benefit of every single person involved in the process, helping each other, sharing information and experience. This is the only way to work effectively on such projects and it is what the IPT is all about.This should be supported by appropriate contractual documents covering the supply/execution of work and provision of goods and services including:

  • responsibility of partners (or cluster partners) in letting, controlling and managing such contracts
  • scope, decision to sub-let, and selection criteria
  • terms to be incorporated in such contracts, including the team charter
  • basis of remuneration (e.g. cost/reward or lump sum)
  • assignment, exclusion, termination, and dispute resolution(including supply and works contracts with third parties).
The contractual form does not necessarily dictate the way the team will integrate or the way individuals will behave, but an appropriate form will reinforce the intent and culture of the IPT, and is recommended. See Chainlink workbooks for different types of supply chain arrangements.The following two books provide guidance about partnering:

    Strengths and weaknesses – Teams of people are brought together to carry out specific functions. They should be assigned roles where skills are most relevant to the task. In a fully effective team, strengths will be maximised and weaknesses will be minimised. An individual may be able to see a way of solving a problem, but nothing can be solved as effectively by one person as it can by a whole team. This is not consensus, so much as asking for opinions, taking the best ideas and then delivering a better solution. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis can help to identify, classify and prioritise in terms of key underlying issues. The analysis looks at current performance (strengths and weaknesses) and factors in the external environment (opportunities and threats) that might affect the future.

The following books provide guidance about SWOT analysis:

    Taking stock of cohesion – At regular points in the project, team effectiveness should be measured using a stocktake tool. This enables progression of the team to be monitored and corrective measures and/ or additional training or development to be applied as necessary.  
    Feedback on performance – Appropriate feedback mechanisms should be used so that team members throughout the project can receive feedback on how well they are performing, on an individual and a team basis, against the values and expectations of the rest of the project group. Everyone is then able to see how they can change, adapt and develop. It is also important to take stock of the project itself and make sure that everyone understands the position that has been reached. This may well affect the training needs and these changes must be fed back, to ensure that the loop continues to operate. Agreed feedback methods, e.g. meetings, two-way toolbox talks, idea boards, etc.For guidance about construction industry KPIs, please refer to the Constructing Excellence website KPI zone.
    Trust – A significant weakness of any industry is an adversarial contractual and confrontational culture. In general terms, this manifests itself in a lack of trust between the various parties involved in a project, each viewing the others as adversaries intent on doing them down and minimising or removing their profit. One of the most fundamental differences in the collaborative approach – and one of the values to which people experience great difficulty in adjusting – is the requirement to trust other team members and recognise that they are trying to achieve the very best results of which they are capable. This is why collective ownership is one of the cornerstones of the IPT approach. It is not appropriate to harbour a grudge, particularly if you assume that everyone always does the best they can. While someone might not understand the implications of an action that has a negative effect on others, they obviously won’t have set out to cause trouble. Working together to resolve such issues will guard against the possibility of a grudge building into a major personality clash. Having got to the bottom of the problem, it might even be necessary to disagree, but that isn’t the same as harbouring a grudge. One of the keys to trusting other people is learning that they are different from you, accepting and valuing the differences. Understanding personal team- working styles can be a great assistance in dealing with this and avoiding unnecessary conflict and mistrust. For more information on working in a culture of trust see:

Please refer to the following books:

    Personal responsibility
Individuals working on IPT projects have to be prepared to exercise free choice and free will in order to take personal responsibility for their contributions. Often, there are organisational and structural pressures that suggest certain rules of behaviour, which people use to deny or deflect responsibility. Once the spirit of these rules is closely examined, they should be entirely compatible, as long as collaborative values are applied as the guiding principles. Individuals must be open and honest with themselves, before they can be so with others.
 
    Developing respect – From self-respect should follow the development of respect for others with whom the individual comes into contact. For guidance about respect for people in the construction industry, please refer to the Constructing Excellence website
    Collaboration – Collaboration means the search for the very best solutions, innovating and creating new opportunities that are only available by exchanging information and exploring others’ ideas; producing outcomes that are of benefit to everybody, without there being any need for compromise.  
    Inclusive values – Everyone who accepts the IPT values ‘buys’ a package. Openness, honesty, using initiative, teamwork and fairness are all part of it and must be applied inclusively, without any suggestion of selecting and rejecting, according to personal wishes. Only then will participants be entitled to the protection of the ‘no blame’ culture that is a central pillar of the collaborative process.  
    Collective understanding – An idea will sound even more radical or unrealistic if those considering it don’t understand what is being discussed, what the idea is and what the issues are. It is therefore important to take time to achieve collective understanding by listening to what is actually being said and ensuring that everyone realises what they are agreeing to, or discarding.  
    Encouraging initiative – In one very real sense, the evidence of a few mistakes being made is a very positive sign, because it demonstrates that people are continuing to use their initiative. The proportion of correct decisions that a person takes increases as they gain experience. If they are criticised on the first occasion, all that will happen is that they will stop using their initiative. Such criticism might avoid one or two mistakes being made, but it could also be responsible for undermining many good and viable ideas that would otherwise have made a positive contribution to the project. Instead, people should be encouraged to be realistic about where they can take risks and where they can apply their initiative. This should not be mistaken for being negligent, naïve or reckless.  
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5.3 Managing expectations/ client care Managing expectations – Expectations of the people who have an interest in the project, but who are very much less familiar with it, need to be managed, so they understand what they are getting and why. Principally, these people are the end users – those who are actually going to own the end result when the project is completed.For example, the traditional construction industry is poor at this essential aspect of communication, with the result that users all too often take over a facility that does not match their expectations for one of a variety of reasons. Users have probably been asked to agree a design using drawings they don’t fully understand. They may not even realise that they won’t get what was initially described, because there isn’t enough money in the budget.The users have hardly been involved in the process, yet they have had to agree to what was offered and will only realise that it isn’t what they asked for after completion. No one has helped them to understand that it will be different and why it will be different. Perhaps there was a misunderstanding about the requirement, or a failure to understand why it was so important or, possibly, that the users were asking for something that they couldn’t possibly have.Frequently, misunderstandings arise because the vocabulary is different. End users do not have the experience in project delivery to describe what they are imagining and project personnel do not understand the business needs enough to realise they have heard something different.Managing expectations is simply about helping people to understand. This starts at the very concept of the project and continues through and beyond its completion. It includes initiatives such as establishing a client care team, which is involved in the project from the earliest point.As soon as a project is sufficiently advanced to be meaningful, end users should be invited to visit and preview what will be theirs. This process should continue throughout the project. By managing expectations, it is almost certain that critical issues will have been raised at a point when it was possible to do something about them, or to explain why it was not appropriate to do so. There might have been elation or disappointment at the time, but there certainly won’t be shock or anger when the project is completed.  
    Client care – A small team, drawn from operational functions and client-focused ‘completers’, should be responsible for managing expectations to ensure they are understood, remain realistic and are escalated as necessary. This could take the following forms:

  • prototyping
  • virtual walk-throughs
  • project open days
  • one-to-one briefing sessions
  • mock-ups.

The client care team acts as the focal point for interaction between the customers and the IPT, acting as translator and ‘internal consultant’ to ensure aspirations are effectively considered and where appropriate delivered, and helping customers to understand where and why aspirations cannot be met (budget, time, sequence, sustainability, etc).

This should continue beyond completion of the project, until the operation is fully proved.

Customer care Team Charter, roles, responsibilities and user interface plan.
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5.4 Health, safety and welfare Efficient management of health and safety depends on a coherent and systematic approach by the whole team, applying similar procedures and a set of agreed minimum standards for achieving common objectives. A combined strategy, which promotes the earliest involvement for each element of the team, should be put in place.This should include the creation and upkeep of a health, safety and welfare plan covering the activity of the IPT (in addition to the legislative needs of CDM regulations, etc). For guidance about health and safety in the construction industry, please refer to the Health and Safety Executive.For guidance about certification schemes for construction employees, please refer to the Construction Skills Certification Scheme. Approved Code of Practice (ACoP) for the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (2007). HSE Books. ISBN 9780717662234
5.5  Communications Communicating and listening – Without doubt the key to successful implementation is ensuring that appropriate communication methods are in place. Effective two-way communication processes will highlight how well the culture is developing and where there are failures and weaknesses that must be addressed. It is therefore vital that they function up and down the process.Potentially large numbers of new people are now going to be involved in the programme, all of whom need to understand the IPT, its values and why working this way is different. In particular, they need to realise that confrontational and adversarial approaches are not being applied, and that a ‘no blame’ culture is essential.This is an area where team and individual training, coaching and/or mentoring is often of great value.True collaboration requires constant communication, which must be active and two-way. By accepting that there is nothing individuals can do which cannot be done better by a team, collaboration automatically becomes the highest value which can only be reached by truly listening to other people and adding their valuable contribution.
A project touches an organisation at many levels. The team must recognise this and communicate at appropriate stages in the project.
The following book provides simple guidance about making communication effective.

  • Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, 3rd ed. (2013). Oxford University press. ISBN 978-0-19-965270-9
    Sharing information
Fundamental openness is the key to consultation, ensuring that all information is shared, nothing is held back and that everyone understands what is required and by when. Open communication by all ensures that information continues to flow, enabling the project to become truly focused. In the event of problems occurring, the issues should be openly discussed to achieve a resolution. Each discipline should meet regularly to share information, discuss the project plans, any issues raised and generate ideas. These forums, populated by individuals with similar aims and objectives, will become a rich source of ideas that moves the whole project forward.
 
    Integrated systems
Modern technology should be the catalyst for common systems and open information channels for use throughout the IPT for:

  • design and drawings
  • project planning and resourcing
  • safety management
  • value management
  • cost planning
  • cross-disciplinary training.
Providers include:

  • Conject
  • Asite
  • 4Projects
    Openness – The IPT should be an environment for openness, with recognition that equality of information is essential for mutual respect and effective collaboration. No one should use information they have as a means to gain advantage over another. This does not imply that confidences cannot be respected, or that certain matters should not remain private, for everyone has a right to an inner level of information that is relevant to them, but not necessarily to every other member of the team.  
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5.6  Delegation and empowerment It is to those people who understand how to assess risk and apply initiative that responsibility should be delegated as widely as possible. Every member of a collaborative team should understand the process and boundaries and should feel empowered, knowing they are trusted and that it is recognised they have the capabilities to deliver what is required of them. In this way, those people who are closest to a problem will be able to recognise it, determine the solution and, after appropriate consultation, ensure that it is implemented.Without such an approach to delegation and empowerment, trivial decisions will be passed up the line to people who are more remote from the problem and who, in any case, should not be spending their time dealing with such matters. Delegation is covered in the following book:

Please refer to the following books:

    Task force approach – One of the most important aspects of the implementation process is, wherever possible, to use a ‘task force approach’, which means assembling the entire project team in the same location. If the scale of the project can support it, this should be on-site, as close to the activity as possible. This allows the free and easy use of face- to-face communication, one of the most effective methods. It enables people to build relationships, to understand the culture that exists and to become immersed in the project’s activities, its problems, opportunities and solutions.  
    Challenging and questioningEven though the consultation process should have been characterised by challenging and questioning, every member of the team must continue to do so. The workforce should be empowered to use their skills and capabilities to make critical evaluations, on the basis that those actually carrying out the task will know how well it will work. Inevitably, there are going to be changes and variations. The business needs are going to develop, so there will be new requirements. Challenging and questioning will establish whether there is need to change, if it is viable and whether the result will be an improvement. All of this is so much more constructive than carrying on with a task with a belief that it is not going to work.  
    Challenges – Once a person acknowledges that others can offer skills and capabilities that he or she cannot, he or she must accept and indeed encourage what amounts to a challenge from those colleagues. There is everything to be gained and nothing to be lost by doing so. A point of view can be evaluated to see if it improves the solution under consideration and can be dropped if it doesn’t. Most people will accept such a position without rancour, once they know their idea has been discussed and they understand why it has not been adopted.  
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5.7  No blame and risk Mistakes – Implementation can only work properly if everyone involved remains focused on the key objectives. When a mistake happens, or something doesn’t work properly, it is important that the issue is raised immediately, because it can’t be resolved until it is known about. Owning up to a mistake, failure or lapse of memory isn’t always easy, but it is nevertheless a principle. Mistakes are often evidence that a process is not working properly and needs to be re-evaluated.In dealing with people who may have made a mistake, it should be realised that it is very difficult to ‘own up’ in a peer situation and to fully understand the consequences of hiding mistakes from each other. Those helping to draw this learning out should understand that people become reactive when they feel exposed and therefore it is essential they are supported by an effective no blame culture within the team environment.  
    Common Risk Matrix – This includes any contingency or risk elements, which should be clearly identified for all to see. Refer to Building Down Barriers Toolkit – A6, Applying Risk Management in Practice (available from Constructing Excellence).The following book is also a useful reference:

And the following British Standards provide guidance about Risk Management:

  • BS 31100:2011 Risk management – code of practice and guidance for the implementation of BS ISO 31000
  • BS ISO 31000:2009 Risk management – principles and guidelines. ISBN 9780580675713
  • BS EN 31010:2010 Risk management – risk assessment techniques

See section 3 (pages 6 and 7) and page 11 of the Integrated Project Insurance (IPI) model guide on how risks are addressed under the IPI model.

5.8  Programme Programme – The project programme must reflect the constraints that apply to all participants, be collectively agreed and be realistic, while ensuring that opportunities to reduce the length of the project are fully explored. An IPT project involves enthusiastic individuals and a time-scale that is unnecessarily long will diminish this enthusiasm just as much as one that is too short.All aspects of the project must be discussed with the various disciplines within the team, in order to avoid operational pitfalls. For example, having a lead time that is shorter than the time in which supplies can be procured will lead to dissatisfaction, recriminations and, possibly, a missed project date. Being realistic will ensure that the various disciplines can work within the time-scales, budgets and standards being set.
5.9  Quality Management Quality Assurance Measurement – It is important to begin the implementation process by deciding how quality is going to be measured and how it will be reported. These decisions will change the way in which aspects of the project are undertaken, monitored and recorded. The Chartered Quality Institute (CQI) is a chartered professional body dedicated entirely to quality: The CQI is the only chartered professional body dedicated entirely to quality.

Quality Systems – The purpose of quality systems is to ensure that the finished product functions correctly, complies with user expectations, provides a valuable asset and a fault-free facility for ongoing operations.Operating during the construction, hand-over and after-care phases, quality systems should be geared to improving quality standards throughout the project. Their success can be measured in a number of ways, including:

  • The percentage of works completed correctly first time
  • The number of issues outstanding at the time of hand-over

Key decision points identified at the outset should be maintained throughout the project, and, once passed, decisions should not be re-visited.

Quality plan, commissioning and testing plan, and quality manualFor compliance with ISO 14000: Environmental management. Please refer to:

  • ISO 14001:2004 Environmental management systems — Requirements with guidance for use
  • ISO 14004:2004 Environmental management systems — General guidelines on principles, systems and support techniques

For compliance with ISO 9000: Quality management. Please refer to:

  • ISO 9001:2008 Quality management systems — Requirements
  • ISO 9004:2009 Managing for the sustained success of an organization – A quality management approach
  • ISO 19011:2011 Guidelines for auditing management systems

For guidance about management of the commissioning process, please refer to the following documents:

In addition to ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, the following standards provide useful guidance about quality management systems:

  • BS ISO 10004:2012 Quality management. Customer satisfaction. Guidelines for monitoring and measuring. ISBN 978 0 580 73749
  • BS ISO 10018:2012 Quality management. Guidelines on people involvement and competence. ISBN 978 0 580 66627 8
  • BIP 2020:2012 The business improvement handbook. From ISO 9001 to world-class performance. ISBN 978 0 580 71022 3
As built drawings, and O&M manuals – A key objective of this process is to cut down on superfluous paperwork, but this must not impede the provision of high quality documentation at project completion. It should be delivered in a format allowing regular revision or updating, and conform to agreed standards. Since team members are paid for their contribution and issues are resolved when they arise, there is no need to record discussion or debate, but only the agreed decision once it has been made and communicated.
In particular there is no place for

  • social and contractual demarcations
  • protectionism
  • man marking
  • enforcement by one side against the other
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5.10 Payments Ensure that transparent payment processes are employed, ideally operated by a single payment team, where possible operating a single Project bank account on behalf of the Virtual Company.In all cases the arrangements should be such as to give no unfair advantage to the Client or any other partner. Payments, covering

  • Basis of payments
  • Bank account
  • Transparency and timeliness
5.11 Managing change New ideas – from the entire workforce – New ideas should be sought throughout the entire project, by emphasising the empowerment and encouraging the creativity of the entire workforce.Traditional construction industry methods give little opportunity for the generation or suggestion of ideas. People should be encouraged to offer ideas, whether they have been nurturing them for a long time, or thought of them five minutes earlier.However, change does not just happen. It needs to be concsiously and competently managed, supported and rewarded. For guidance about the management of change, please refer to the following British Standards:

For guidance about how to encourage and empower the workforce to contribute to a project, please refer to the Respect For People Toolkit.

Being open to change – To suggest that there is too much change in industry and that, perhaps, 80 per cent of a requirement should be fixed before implementation begins, is to miss the point.Not every Client organisation will know exactly what it needs at the start of a project. The business of such companies may change almost daily and it is impossible for them to identify an absolute requirement at the beginning of, for example, a two-year project. Flexibility and adaptability are the keys, because the Clients need to be able to refine their needs as they go along.What this requires is a process that allows those involved to understand differing needs, so that appropriate changes can be made in what is being implemented.This does not mean change for its own sake. What is different should still be challenged and questioned. What is it about the needs of the business today that suddenly requires change in what was happening in the project yesterday?Any suggested change also needs to be put in the context of the stage the project has reached. Does the change make a difference? Can it be implemented? Will it cause a delay or even prevent some objectives being met?Change therefore needs to be welcomed, but also challenged and questioned, to ensure that it is appropriate, beneficial and capable of delivering something of more value.
Implications for goals and objectives – Changes will have an impact on the goals and objectives of the project. It is essential to identify where the impact will be made and to ensure that all team members understand the implications of the proposed change, before it is implemented. This should include referral to the Value criteria.As common goals and objectives exist, all parties are able to determine what changes can and cannot be incorporated towards the end of the project. Collective decisions can therefore be made about whether further change should be made, or be held until after the project has been finished. By involving end users throughout the process, changes that frequently occur at the end, because individuals are surprised by the outcomes, are virtually eliminated.
5.12 Managing the budget One of the key principles of working collaboratively in the IPT is the transparent way in which costs are managed. There is only one budget created for the entire IPT. The budget includes all costs, fees and charges to be incurred by any party, including the client group, and has a single contingency sum to cover uncertainty and risks. The budget is prepared by a single team appointed by the IPT and comprises individuals drawn from one of more of the IPT partner organisations. The budget is available to all IPT members at all levels. In an ideal situation it would represent the sum deposited in a project back account at commencement and drawn down by the budget team on behalf of the IPT.The budget itself would normally be constructed in an elemental cost form; that is elements of the project would be identified, either as unit rates and expected quantities, or as fixed allowances. These rates or allowances would start approximate and develop as the detail became known. For example a unit rate may start for an exterior wall and later develop into structure, doors, windows, rendering and interior coverings etc. The IPT would determine how detailed the costs needed to become to enable team members to manage their elements of the project and for the costs to remain accurate.As the project evolves, starting with strategic solutions and moving right through to delivery, the team will be designing and developing and installing the project requirements. The budget team will be tracking this evolution and maintaining the elemental cost plan in parallel.Because the budget is both dynamic and available to all, at any given time all parties are able to see the consequences of design and implementation decisions, including scope and specification changes. This means that everyone is able to make value decisions on whether their element can afford the development/changes required and whether or not reductions are required in their element or elsewhere to accommodate them. The IPT board, which has client representation as an integral member, act to arbitrate if necessary and to agree how and when to allocate the project contingency and/or to reject proposed changes.This dynamic visibility of the budget means that it is extremely difficult for the project to overspend unless there are serious costs due to unforeseen circumstances e.g. a major disaster. It also means that it is possible to define an investment limit for the project and effectively work towards a maximum price. Of course it is still possible to overspend if the budgeting is incompetently handled, for example is inconsistent with the scope from day one, but the open nature of the budgeting means there are many experienced heads which would also have to under perform for this to happen and so the risk is very low if the IPT is working in a fully integrated collaborative fashion. For guidance about Whole Life Costing, please refer to the following sources:

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